Your pension is your monthly slice of the pie for life – and Funded Status is the recipe for making sure that you get every slice promised. But for the Florida Retirement System (FRS), Funded Status presents some significant challenges. Here’s why it matters…
How does Florida keep track of the pension promises made to teachers and other public workers all across the state? Keeping track of the ability to make pension payments to current and future retirees starts with an important measurement: funded status.
What is the ‘Funded Status’ of FRS?
This is a measurement of how much money the FRS pension fund should have.
- Pension funds have assets — contributions paid in by government employers and employees, plus investment returns made by putting those contributions into stocks, bonds, and other ways of making money.
- Pension funds also have promises — commitments made to current retirees, and current workers who will retire in the future.
The “funded ratio” of FRS is the percentage of assets in the fund, relative to the promises made. If a pension plan is 100% funded, that means it has all of the money it needs to pay current retirees, plus make investments that will produce future investment returns.
Unfortunately, FRS doesn’t have all of the money it should have. This means there is an “unfunded liability” — commonly known as pension debt. This is debt owed by Florida governments to FRS, which will need the money to pay out future benefits to public workers. Florida’s government employers have promised $191 billion in retirement benefits… but FRS only has $161 billion in assets. There is a $30 billion shortfall (i.e. $30 billion in pension debt, or unfunded liabilities), and the funded ratio is 84%.
What is the ‘Funded Status’ for Teachers in FRS?
There are hundreds of state agencies, municipal governments, and public schools that are participating employers within FRS. The employers serving K-12 students across Florida comprise around 49% of all FRS public employers. A reasonable estimate is that around $14.7 billion of the FRS shortfall is applicable to teachers, but the ratio of assets to promised benefits is the same at 84%.
Why is it important?
Funded status helps to keep track of whether a pension fund is going to be able to pay out all of the benefits promised by a state or local government.
It is helpful to know what percentage of funding a pension plan has, because when that number starts to drop below 100%, it could be a warning sign of trouble. It is also helpful to know what the funding shortfall is as a dollar amount — because this lets us know how much needs to be paid into the pension fund at some point, to be sure benefits can be paid.
What problems could poor funded status create?
Poor funded status can lead to public pension plans freezing Cost of Living Adjustments (COLAs). This means your pension stays the same, while inflation makes it more expensive to buy the things you need. And since 2011, working teachers are not earning COLAs on their future pension benefits — it could be that Florida moves to freeze COLAs for current retirees too if the funded status does not improve.
You may also see an increase in your property taxes; as pension debt rises, taxes on all property owners often increase. Whether you’re working or retired, this means less money for everyday living.
Other public programs can also suffer. Funding for roads, schools, parks, municipal programs, and more are being cut as pension debt takes a bigger bite from public budgets.
What is a healthy funded status?
Pension plans are designed to be 100% funded. That should be the target of Florida or any other state with a pension plan.
Why? The whole point of setting up a pension fund in the first place is to put money aside (contributions from governments and employees as participants) and invest that money, using the investment returns to help pay future benefits. In this way, governments are “pre-funding” the benefits they’ve promised.
So when FRS has less than 100% of the money needed — like right now — there isn’t enough money from the pension fund in the financial markets to earn investment returns.
Is it okay if the funded status is just 84%?
Not really. For a year or two, it isn’t a problem if your state’s pension plan isn’t 100% funded. But low funded status shouldn’t be permanent.
The value of pension funds can fluctuate from year to year. Even after a big financial crash, markets tend to bounce back. In fact, some of the best investment returns for pension funds happened in the years right after the Financial Crisis of 2008-09. So it’s reasonable that funded status will fluctuate over time.
But being continuously around 80% to 90% funded isn’t good enough. And for two reasons:
- First, pension debt payments are expensive for Florida, and are taking money away from investing in roads, parks, or education. For example, last year school districts and the state spent $1.3 billion on pension debt payments, accounting to $711 per student. This is bad just for one year… but doing it every year can create really terrible outcomes for society.
- Second, the assets of a pension fund are not only to pay current retirees. They are also supposed to be invested to earn returns that will be used to pay future FRS retiree benefits. Staying at a poor funded status forever means keeping future retirees constantly at risk of not getting all promised benefits.
When should I be worried about the funded status in my state?
Right now. The last time the Florida Retirement System was fully funded was 2008. That is more than a decade of persistent pension debt.
Once the funded ratio of a pension fund drops below 90% for two or three years in a row, that is a warning sign that something isn’t exactly right. FRS reached this point back in 2009.
Having a funded ratio below 90% for several years in a row means that unfunded liabilities are persisting. And just like carrying credit card debt for a long-time, the longer that a state takes to pay off its pension debt, the more expensive it will be in the long-run.
Want to read more?
– See Equable’s series on Pension Basics, including an article about Funded Status.
– Take a look at Bellwether Education Partner’s analysis of Florida teacher retirement benefits.
– Check out Pension Integrity Project’s review of FRS solvency.